The Flood of 1997 in the Red River Valley

  • A guide to records concerning recovery from the flood
    Housed at the Northwest Minnesota Historical Center, Livingston Lord Library, Minnesota State University Moorhead. Prepared by Terry L. Shoptaugh and Korella Selzler, June 1999.

  • 1997 Flood 3

    In April 1997, the Red River of the North, which marks the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, flooded. The immediate effects of the flooding were well covered by the local and national media. But the long-term difficulties of rebuilding homes, businesses, and lives after the flood receded are less well known. Recovery went well into the summer and fall of 1997 in all parts of the region. Recovery continues in many communities now, more than two years after the flood. People who live in the Red River Valley have struggled with the challenges of flood recovery, with problems rebuilding their homes, their businesses, and their sense of security. The materials described in these pages were collected by the Northwest Minnesota Historical Center to document the processes of flood recovery.

    The core of this collection is the set of oral interview transcripts described in Series II of the inventory. These interviews were undertaken by the Northwest Center with funding assistance from the Minnesota Historical Society. Selected individuals were interviewed over a period of 15 months. These people represented government officials, homeowners, business owners, and others who were asked to describe their perspectives on flood recovery problems. The interviews range in length from one to two hours, and are fully transcribed on paper. In addition to the set of transcripts in this collection, a second set of transcripts is deposited at the Minnesota Historical Society, while a third set is in the collections of the Lake Agassiz Regional Library in northwest Minnesota. Tapes of the interviews are also preserved at the Northwest Center and the Minnesota Historical Society.

    The remaining materials in the flood recovery collection are organized in three parts:

    • Series I: Manuscripts (written records collected during the flood and in conjunction with interviews concerning aspects of flood recovery).
    • Series III: Publications (consisting of books published locally about the flood, stories in magazines on the flood, and miscellaneous publications on flood recovery topics).
    • Series IV: Video and Audio tapes (from local television and radio stations with stories about the flood and flood recovery).
    • Series V: News Clippings (photocopies of news stories from local newspapers concerning recovery issues and organized by community and topic).

    The inventory to the collection which follows contains a brief description of each file, interview transcript, tape, and publication.

    In addition, people who use this Guide may be interested in the flood recovery exhibit that was designed in the fall of 1998 by four students at Minnesota State University Moorhead. The exhibit, entitled "Ebb Tide: Recovery From the 1997 Flood in the Red River Valley," uses documents from the flood recovery collection and quotes from the interviews to highlight the most significant issues of recovery from the 1997 flood. Copies of the exhibit are preserved at the Northwest Minnesota Historical Center and may be borrowed for exhibition. This Guide is also available through the web site.

    The Northwest Minnesota Historical Center gratefully acknowledges the financial assistance of the Minnesota Historical Society and the Roland and Beth Dille Excellence Fund of Minnesota State University Moorhead for the development of this collection.

    Funding for this Guide was provided by the Dille Excellence Fund and the Minnesota Humanities Commission in cooperation with the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Minnesota State Legislature.

    1. Ada, Minnesota -- Bridges Medical Center, Nursing Home.
    Correspondence, news stories, and photographs of the residents of the John Wimmer Nursing Home in Ada. In April 1997, the home was evacuated during the flooding of Ada. Since that time, the residents of the home have lived in other nursing homes in the region, and many have passed away. A new nursing home is under construction. The documents in this file concern the evacuation of the home and plans for the new home.

    2. American Red Cross -- press releases.
    Copies of press releases issued in April and May 1997, by the American Red Cross concerning emergency shelter services, flood relief aid, and fundraising for flood recovery work.

    3. CNN (Cable News Network, Inc.) -- news stories of flood.
    Copies of stories aired on CNN in April, May, and June 1997, concerning the flooding in the Red River Valley and the subsequent debates over a federal flood relief bill.

    4-5. Disaster Recovery -- pamphlets, information sheets, etc. (2 files).
    Copies of pamphlets and information sheets made available to residents of the region from a variety of relief organizations, local community relief efforts, and private groups, containing advice on flood recovery. The pamphlets and sheets focus largely on tips for cleaning flooded homes, dealing with financial difficulties after the flood, and dealing with emotional problems.

    6. Disaster Relief -- web site stories on the flood.
    Disaster Relief is an organization that collects and disseminates information on disaster aid. These stories about the flood and the relief efforts immediately during and after the flood, are taken from the organization's web site and cover the period from late April to mid-June 1997.

    7. East Grand Forks, Minnesota -- recovery publications.
    Copies of pamphlets and leaflets issued by the East Grand Forks city government throughout the remainder of 1997 and into 1998. The materials contain advice and information on financial assistance available for new or temporary housing in East Grand Forks.

    8-19. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) -- flood records (12 files).
    Copies of FEMA press releases, daily situation reports, and recovery information regarding the flood in the Valley. Most of this information is dated early April-late June 1997 and was taken from the FEMA web sit on the flood. One file contains FEMA advisory notes for media coverage of the flood and another contains photographs of the flood obtained from FEMA. A small file of local newspaper articles about FEMA completes the set of files.

    20. First National Bank, North Dakota -- selected correspondence.
    A small file of form letters that First National Bank, North Dakota sent to its patrons concerning the flood damage to individual safe deposit boxes in the main, downtown branch in Grand Forks. A few photo prints of the removal and restoration of the flood safe deposit area are also included. (For further information on this topic, see the interview transcript of Austin, Labine, and Upham described in Series II.)

    21. Flood Diary, April-May 1997.
    A copy of a daily record of the flood kept by a Canadian writer who traveled the length of the Valley in April 1997. The diary contains observations of flood damage in most of the major communities in the Valley and many observations of rural flooding. The diary was first published on a web site.

    22. The Forum -- flood news stories.
    Copies of major news stories about the flood and flood recovery from the region's largest newspaper published in Fargo, North Dakota, dated late April - early June 1997.

    23-25. Grand Forks Herald -- flood news stories (3 files).
    Copies of stories from the Grand Forks, North Dakota newspaper concerning the flood and its aftermath. A small selection of stories concern the events from April 17 to April 22, 1997, when the dikes broke in Grand Forks-East Grand Forks and most residents of both towns were evacuated. (For further information on the events of the flooding and evacuation, see the interview transcripts of Barrett, Buckalew, Dunlevy, Manske, Pearson, Stennes, and Weber and Holtman described in Series II.) The remainder of the stories, from late April to late July 1997, concern recovery from the flood. A small number of stories published in 1998 concern background to the flooding and concerns for future flood prevention.

    26. Internal Revenue Service (IRS).
    Two documents taken from the IRS web page on advice and assistance to flood victims in filing late tax declarations and declaring losses due to flooding.

    27. International Joint Commission.
    Publications of the International Joint Commission of Canada and the United States concerning mutual concerns due to the flood. The documents include the report of the International Red River Basin Task Force on flood damage, including evidence of pollution of the Red River due to the flood. (For related information on this topic, see the transcript of the Mikkelson interview described in Series II.)

    28. KX4 Floodtalk.
    In the aftermath of the flood, KXJB TV, Fargo, provided on its web site a message board allowing flood victims with computer and web access to exchange messages. This file contains a small selection of the messages posted on the Floodtalk site in April and May 1997.

    29. Lake Agassiz Regional Library (LARL) -- flood correspondence.
    The Lake Agassiz Regional Library is the federated library system for much of northwest Minnesota. This file contains correspondence concerning the damage to Ada Public Library, a member of LARL, and the restoration of its library collection after the flood.

    30. Minnesota Department of Economic Security -- news releases.
    News releases issued in April 1997, concerning emergency financial assistance to flood victims, together with a news release in June 1997, concerning the impact of the flood on migrant labor.

    31-32. Minnesota Division of Emergency Management -- reports (2 files).
    Two series of reports issued by the Division in connection with the flood. The first series consists of 29 reports from March 28 to April 30, 1997, describing Division activities during the flood. It includes information on health issues, disaster assistance, operations of the national guard during the flood, and operation of the Division's flood hot line. The second series consists of nine reports from May 15 to August 5, 1997, concerning flood recovery. This series includes details on emergency shelters, financial assistance to flood victims, housing for flood victims, and coordination with other state, federal, and private relief groups. Rounding out the collection are some brief reports issued in June and July 1997, from the Division's "Minnesota Recovers Disaster Task Force."

    33. Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) -- flood documents.
    This file contains some press releases on various cleanup efforts following the flood, the minutes of the MPCA's Citizen's Board meeting of April 29, 1997, concerning flood cleanup, and a copy of the MPCA permit issued to East Grand Forks for creation of a new demolition landfill site to facilitate flood cleanup.

    34. Minnesota Public Radio -- news transcripts.
    This file contains transcripts of news broadcasts about the flood and flood recovery, dated from April 4 to November 25, 1997.

    35-37. Miscellaneous documents on the flood (3 files).
    These files contains stories about the flood and flood recovery from non-local newspapers, magazines, and newsletters. Also included are some documents from government agencies in North Dakota on the flood and its aftermath, reports from the University of Minnesota's Agricultural Extensions Service on the flood's impact on farming, plus miscellaneous other materials.

    38-39. Moorhead, Minnesota -- city manager's office (2 files).
    Documents from the city manager's office regarding the flood and flood recovery including correspondence received from residents, press releases, and reports on the flooding in the city.

    40. Moorhead, Minnesota -- flood insurance maps.
    Copies of the flood insurance maps issued by the National Flood Insurance office defining the flood plain as it existed in March 1997. Also includes documents on obtaining flood insurance and a 1987 study by FEMA on the extent of flood insurance coverage in the Moorhead area.

    41. Moorhead, Minnesota -- Public Services Department.
    Documents on the flood from the Public Services Department including situation reports in April 1997. Also includes studies on the flood damage conducted in May and June 1997, and a copy of the flood mitigation study made in 1997 for future flood prevention.

    42. Moorhead, Minnesota -- press releases.
    Copies of every flood-related press release issued by the mayor's office from March 26 to May 1, 1997.

    43. Moorhead State University -- flood documents.
    Copies of documents concerning Moorhead State University and the flood. Includes records regarding volunteer efforts by Moorhead State University students and staff in fighting the flood, plus documents concerning the emergency shelter at Moorhead State University for evacuees from various regional communities. (For further information on the emergency shelter at Moorhead State University, see the Ebner interview transcript described in Series II.)

    44. National Weather Service -- flood documents.
    Copies of press releases and flood water level forecasts issued by the National Weather Service office in Grand Forks, North Dakota, during the flood. (For further information on the National Weather Service role during the flood, see the transcript of the Pearson interview described in Series II.)

    45. Nora Lutheran Church.
    Documents and news stories concerning the flooding and restoration of the Nora Lutheran Church near Gardner, North Dakota, one of the oldest Lutheran church buildings in the region. Numerous photographs of the restoration of the church building are also in the file.

    46. Norman County Index.
    Copies of the county newspaper published in Ada, Minnesota, from April 1 to April 29, 1997. These five issues contain stories on the evacuation of Ada, flooding in the rural parts of the county, and flood fights in the other communities in the county.

    47-49. Norman County, Minnesota -- flood records.
    Copies of records kept at the office of the Norman County environmental services director (who is also the emergency management director for the county). Includes daily situation summaries during April 1997, records of the evacuation of Ada, a contingency evacuation plan for Hendrum (which did not have to be implemented), and records concerning the implementation of a "no fly zone" over portions of Norman County during the flood. (For further information on these topics see the transcripts of the Thronson and Ruud interview, and the Schuster self-interview described in Series II.)

    50. North American Center for Emergency Communications (NACEC) -- web site documents.
    Two documents from the NACEC web site concerning the emergency operations Flood Victim Locator Center established in Fargo during the flood.

    51. North Dakota Department of Agriculture -- press releases.
    Copies of press releases dated April 18 to June 26, 1997, mostly concerned with the flood's impact on livestock and the removal of dead livestock during and after the flood.

    52. North Dakota Department of Geosciences -- flood background papers.
    Copies of four scholarly papers explaining the causes and consequences of flooding in the Red River Valley.

    53-57. North Dakota Division of Emergency Management-- flood situation reports (5 files).
    Copies of 72 reports dated January 16 to December 5, 1997, tracing the course of flooding and flood recovery in North Dakota. Most of the reports after early April concern issues of flood recovery.

    58. North Dakota State University Extension Service -- flood recovery advice.
    Copies of the Service's "Coping with Recovery" series, providing advice on financial and emotional recovery for flood victims.

    59. Northern States Power (NSP) -- flood documents.
    This file contains copies of NSP's newsletter, news releases, and some correspondence, all dealing with power problems during the flood and restoration of power after the flood. (For further information on this topic, see the transcript of the interview with Pederson and Stumpf described in Series II.)

    60. Post-flood Workshop -- "A Flood of Emotions."
    Copies of materials used at the "Flood of Emotions" post-flood workshop held for mental health counselors and other professionals at Moorhead State University in September 1997.

    61. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) -- flood broadcasts.
    Transcripts of two PBS radio broadcasts dated April 11 and May 26, 1997, regarding the flood in the Valley and the early recovery challenges in the Grand Forks area.

    62. Recovery Road.
    Copies of the flood recovery newspaper published by the Public Information Center of the Grand Forks city government. The issues are a standard four pages, with stories on available housing, dike expansion, and other recovery issues.

    63. Recovery Times.
    This standard eight page newsletter was jointly published by FEMA and the Minnesota Division of Emergency Management. Most of the items in the three issues published contain information on where and how to apply for disaster assistance, obtain loans, obtain clean-up assistance, and deal with post-flood depression.

    64. Red River Valley -- pre-1997 flood information.
    This file contains information on floods in the Valley prior to the flood of 1997, in news stories, government documents, and miscellaneous reminiscences. A small number of black and white prints of flooding in 1969 is also in the file.

    65. Salvation Army -- news releases.
    Copies of news releases issued by the Salvation Army from March 12 to August 1, 1997, dealing with this organization's role in providing assistance to flooded communities and families who were victims of the flood.

    66. Second Harvest -- news releases.
    Second Harvest is a nationwide clearinghouse for food banks in the United States. These four news releases, dated April 23 to May 15, 1997, detail the organization's role in donations of food for Red River Valley flood victims.

    67. Small Business Administration (SBA) -- disaster loan program.
    Four documents taken from the SBA's web site, with information on how disaster loans could be obtained by flood victims.

    68. Twin Valley, Minnesota -- emergency shelter documents.
    Twin Valley, a community in Norman County near Ada, acted as an evacuation site for many Ada residents. These documents were compiled at the evacuation site in Twin Valley, and concern names of the evacuees and their disposition, fund raising efforts by Twin Valley churches, and the use of the nursing home in Twin Valley as a shelter for those people evacuated from the Wimmer Home in Ada. Also in the file are copies of the Twin Valley Times for April 8, 15, 22, and 29, 1997, which contain more information on these issues.

    69-74. United States Army Corps of Engineers -- flood recovery reports (6 files).
    Copies of the recovery reports compiled and issued by the Corps of Engineers from April 29 - November 18, 1997. These reports concern primarily the earmarking of federal funds for dike repairs. Some information on new diking for future flood protection is also contained in the reports.

    Flood 1997
    Flood waters in Breckenridge, Minnesota, April 1997. Note that the water is up to the windows of the car in center.

    75-77. United States Army Corps of Engineers -- flood situation reports (3 files).
    Copies of reports dated March 14 to May 18, 1997, detailing the course of flooding in the Valley. The reports contain information on emergency diking efforts by the Corps, on the flooding in various communities, and on early emergency services to flood victims.

    78. United States Army Corps of Engineers -- news releases.
    Dated from August 12, 1996 to April 26, 1997, these news releases are those specifically on the flooding in the Red River Valley, with some general information on the role of the Corps in fighting the flood.

    79. United States Army Corps of Engineers -- web site documents.
    These documents contain precise measurements of gage readings of the Red River and other area rivers during the flood.

    80. United States Geological Survey -- "stream gaging" documents.
    These documents describe how "stream gaging" is employed to measure the flow of water in rivers and creeks. They are included in the collection because the flow of water was a vital -- and controversial -- factor in the flood level forecasts for the Valley.

    81. Volunteer Efforts.
    A small selection of documents of volunteers in the Red River Valley during the flood and in various recovery undertakings.

    82. WCCO Television -- flood stories.
    Print copies of four stories broadcast on WCCO News, of St. Paul, in April and May 1997, concerning the flooding in and around Fargo and Grand Forks. (For additional stories, see the description in Series IV of the "Beyond the Flood" videotape featuring news stories by five Twin Cities news stations.)

    Flood waters in Breckenridge, Minnesota, April 1997. Note that the water is up to the windows of the car in center.

    1. Austin, Sheryl, Shari Labine, and Bonnie Upham.
    This interview is with three employees of First National Bank, North Dakota in Grand Forks at the time of the 1997 flood in Grand Forks: Sheryl Austin, security officer for all branches of the Bank; Shari Labine, safe deposit clerk for the main branch in Grand Forks; and Bonnie Upham, internal audit employee.

    In this interview, the three employees of the bank discuss their activities connected to the bank's recovery efforts after the flood. They describe what the bank did to provide service to customers after the flood, what efforts were made to restore computer equipment at the branches, restore ATM machines in the community, and to recover and restore property in safe deposit boxes at the branches that were flooded. They explain the security measures that were taken to remove flooded safe deposit boxes, and secure the contents of those boxes. They also describe the procedures that the bank followed in contacting box holders so that they could reclaim valuables and documents. Each of the three interviewees also describe some of the difficulties they encountered in dealing with their own homes after the flood.

    2. Barrett, Mary.
    Mary Barrett was born and raised in Grand Forks, North Dakota. After several years raising a family, in 1981, Mrs. Barrett became a migrant school nurse with the Polk County Head Start Program in Crookston. In 1996, when the Head Start Program office was opened in East Grand Forks, Minnesota, she became the director of that new office.

    In this interview, Mrs. Barrett discusses the flood of 1997 in the Red River Valley and its impact on East Grand Forks. She devotes special attention to the difficulties that the residents of East Grand Forks faced in obtaining child care after the flood receded. She describes in detail the steps that her office took to provide temporary child care during the summer of 1997, and the role of the Head Start Program in helping regular day care businesses reopen after the flood. She explains how the flood affected young children, and describes the ways in which child care was connected to how successfully families were able to rebuild after the flood. She concludes the interview with some speculations on the future of East Grand Forks as it rebuilds.

    3. Bauer, Tim.
    Tim Bauer was born in Kenyon, Minnesota. In 1981, after receiving his divinity degree, Reverend Bauer undertook his first pastorate at a Lutheran church in Grenora, North Dakota. Since that time, he has had several pastorates, including his current one, at Emmanuel Lutheran Church in Hendrum, Minnesota. Reverend Bauer began his pastorate in Hendrum in October 1996.

    In this interview, Reverend Bauer describes the harsh winter of 1996-97 in Hendrum, and the events in the town during the April 1997 flood. He describes how his church was used as an emergency shelter when power failed in Hendrum in early April. He also describes the activities in the community after the town was largely evacuated while those who remained maintained the emergency ring dike around the town. He explains many of the tasks he was involved in during that period, including dike patrols, meals for the emergency crews and national guard troops, and maintenance of morale while the town was surrounded by flood waters. After the flood waters receded, Hendrum's population turned to recovery efforts. Reverend Bauer describes the role of Lutheran Social Services in those efforts. He also discusses the only fatalities that occurred in Hendrum related to the flood, when two brothers died in an accident while building a new home after the flood. He concludes his interview with some speculations on the long-term effects of the flood on the community.

    4. Bertschi, Tim.
    A native of southwest Minnesota, Tim Bertschi graduated from Mankato State University in 1979 and went to work with the Army Corps of Engineers in St. Paul. In 1987, he moved to Fargo, North Dakota, as Operations Project Manager for the Western Flood Control Project area. In this capacity, he acted as the area flood engineer for the Corps during the flooding that occurred in the Red River basin in 1993, 1995, 1996, and 1997.

    In this interview, Mr. Bertschi describes his tasks during the flooding that occurred in the Valley in April 1997. He discusses the various pre-flood efforts made to deal with the flooding through permanent and temporary dikes, the various emergencies that the Corps responded to during the flood, and the ways in which the flooding may alter future Corps planning for the Red River basin. He also discusses some of the water management issues that have arisen as a result of the 1997 flood.

    5. Birkemeyer, Jim.
    A native of Comfrey, Minnesota, Jim Birkemeyer moved to Ada, Minnesota, in 1987 to purchase a radio station and reorganize it as KRJB. Because he had ten years of communications experience in Ada, Mr. Birkemeyer played a key role in Ada's reaction to the flooding of the town in April 1997. He became the town's communications officer, reporting to the Emergency Operations Center established to battle the flood and deal with the difficulties that arose after much of the town's population was evacuated. Mr. Birkemeyer discusses his activities during the flooding and his work as communications officer in the weeks just after the flood. In particular, he describes his work in dealing with members of various national news organizations, reporters from national and regional television news groups, and representatives from various recovery organizations. Mr. Birkemeyer also discusses the impact of the flooding of Ada on his radio station and his family.

    6. Buck, Michelle and Amber Waltman.
    In this interview, Michelle Buck and her daughter Amber Waltman describe their experiences in the Red River Valley flood of 1997. Michelle, born in 1969, discusses the flooding that threatened her family’s home in north Moorhead, Minnesota. She also explains why she decided to send her daughters to East Grand Forks to be with their grandmother during the crisis in Moorhead. Once the flood waters quit rising in Moorhead, Michelle went to East Grand Forks to retrieve her children – only to arrive just before the dikes collapsed there.

    Amber, born in 1986, describes what happened in East Grand Forks as the dikes broke near the neighborhood in which her grandmother lived and how she, her sister, her mother, and grandmother had to be evacuated. Ultimately, Michelle and Amber, together with several other relatives spent several days in Crookston before Michelle and her daughters were able to return to Moorhead. This joint narrative by Michelle and Amber provides a look at how the Valley flood deeply affected the lives of one extended family.

    7. Buckalew, Craig.
    A native of Iowa, Craig Buckalew moved to East Grand Forks in 1990 when he purchased a Hardware Hank franchise in that community. In 1994, he and his family built a home in northeast East Grand Forks, a considerable distance from the Red River.

    In this interview, Mr. Buckalew discusses his experiences during the flood of 1997. He describes how he evacuated his family to Crookston after the dikes broke in East Grand Forks. He explains how, with the help of others, he spent the next few days protecting his store from the rising waters by building and maintaining an emergency dike around the building. When the flood receded, Mr. Buckalew turned to repairing the damage to his home and his store, and the difficulties of financing the repairs. He concludes the interview by describing the impact of the flood and its aftermath on his hardware business.

    8. Dahl, Greg.
    Greg Dahl was born near Eau Claire, Wisconsin. After graduating from high school he joined the Wisconsin National Guard, and remained in the Wisconsin Guard until he moved to St. Cloud, Minnesota, in 1990. At that time, he joined the Minnesota National Guard. In 1995, he moved to Moorhead. At the time of the interview, in 1997, Dahl was a major in the Moorhead Headquarters Unit, with primary responsibilities in communications and administration. The Minnesota Guard's units in the northwest sector of the state consisted of the battalion headquarters in Moorhead, plus four companies of the 2nd Battalion of the 136th Infantry: A Company, located in Wadena and Fergus Falls; B Company in Crookston and Thief River Falls; C Company in Bemidji; and D Company in Detroit Lakes.

    In this interview, Major Dahl discusses the roles of these, and other, Minnesota National Guard units in dealing with the emergencies that arose during the 1997 flood. He describes the various duties undertaken by the Guard in the flooded communities of Ada, Breckenridge, and East Grand Forks, as well as Guard activities in the rural areas of the region. These duties included traffic control (guarding of roads; permitting access to evacuated neighborhoods), dike patrol, delivery of emergency supplies, including gasoline and fuel oil, even on occasion working to reinforce dikes. The most common and well-publicized duty of the Guard was assisting homeowners and residents to evacuate as the flood waters rose. Major Dahl discusses the transportation equipment employed by the Guard during these evacuations, as well as the communications system that was used to organize and direct all the units' activities. In addition, he provides detail on some of the difficulties that guard members -- some of whom were themselves victims of the flooding -- encountered while carrying out these tasks. Major Dahl concludes the interview by describing the steps that have been taken since the flood to repair guard transport and other equipment.

    9. Dohman, Pam.
    Born in Breckenridge, Pam Dohman has been involved in efforts to fight flooding in and around the town since the heavy flooding in 1989. In 1997, she acted as coordinator of volunteers for the Emergency Operations Center in Breckenridge during the April flood. In this interview, Mrs. Dohman discusses the events of the flood in conjunction with her work in dispatching volunteers -- many of whom were high school students -- to various threatened sites. She discusses the safety arrangements made to safeguard volunteers, some of the emergencies that volunteers dealt with during the flood, and the physical and emotional toll that the flooding had on the volunteers. She also describes the work of her husband, who is chief of the Breckenridge fire department, and the impact of the flood on herself and her family.

    10. Dunlevy, Mary Ann.
    Born in Guthrie, North Dakota, Mary Ann Dunlevy moved into her home in East Grand Forks in 1956. This home, located in the northwestern part of the city of East Grand Forks, is situated on the edge of River Heights Park, little more than one hundred yards from a major bend in the Red River. The Dunlevys were accustomed to taking steps to protect their home during high water or flooding of the river.

    In this interview, Mrs. Dunlevy recounts her experiences in trying to protect her home during the April 1997 flood of the Red River. She describes the steps she and her friends and neighbors took to try and raise sandbag dikes to protect their property, the difficulties they encountered during the early days of the flooding, and the ultimate flooding of their homes. Mrs. Dunlevy describes the damage that the high water did to her home, one of the first homes lost in the flooding of East Grand Forks. She discusses the losses of personal property due to the flood, the extensive recovery period she endured after the flooding, and her decision to sell her home and leave East Grand Forks.

    After leaving the Red River Valley, Mrs. Dunlevy made a new life for herself and is now living in the Twin Cities -- a considerable distance away from any flood plain.

    11. Ebner, Lynne.
    A native of western North Dakota, Lynne Ebner attended the University of North Dakota and received a degree in nursing. After teaching nursing at UND and in hospital training programs, she joined the staff of Moorhead State University in 1978 as the college health nurse. In 1985, she became the director of the university's Hendrix Health Center. In 1989, she earned a masters degree in Public and Human Service Administration.

    In this interview, Ms. Ebner discusses the Red Cross shelter established at Moorhead State University during the 1997 flood. The shelter was subsequently used for several weeks by persons who evacuated Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks, Minnesota, when those cities were flooded. Ebner describes how the shelter operated and the various issues that MSU personnel dealt with in connection with the shelter. She also provides information on the efforts of faculty, staff, and students at the university in fighting the flood in the Fargo-Moorhead area.

    12. Evert, Jon.
    Born and raised in Clay County, Jon Evert owns a farm near Moorhead, Minnesota, and has held several local offices, including terms as a member of the county commission. He has also served on various boards in the region, including an area basin water board, the International Coalition for Land and Water Stewardship, and the Northwest Disaster Response Network, a group that was formed to consider flood recovery work in the northwestern Minnesota counties affected by the 1997 flood.

    In this interview, Mr. Evert discusses the impact of the 1997 flood on his own farm, the damage to his water supply and property, and the costs he had in recovering from the flood. He also discusses in detail the impact of the flood on many rural areas in the region. He describes the difficulties farmers have had over recent years with crops and finances and how the flood damage may have accelerated the decline of many small farms. He explains that rural "buy-out" programs may result in rural townships having no population, and that both town and county tax bases have been severely damaged by flood loses. He discusses some of the international implications that have been brought forth over water management issues after the flood. He discusses the impact of the flood on the emotional health of many rural residents in the region. He concludes his interview with some observations on the future of smaller farms in the region.

    13. Holmvik, Greg.
    A native of Fertile, Minnesota, Greg Holmvik joined the Ada police force in 1973, after leaving the United States Army. In 1975, Mr. Holmvik became the chief of the Ada Police Department.

    In this interview, Chief Holmvik describes the course of the 1997 flooding in and around Ada. He explains the role of the police department in the evacuation of most of Ada's residents during the heavy flooding and loss of power early in April. He also discusses the many activities that occurred in Ada while the town was largely evacuated. He describes some of the earliest recovery actions taken in Ada, to restore power and services, and provide food and shelter to the emergency workers in the town during April. He explains some of the impact of the flood on such issues as police work, funding for flood recovery, and rebuilding the infrastructure of the community, including the equipment of the police force, after the flood. He concludes the interview with some thoughts on the long-term recovery of Ada as a result of the flooding.

    14. Huseby, Lincoln.
    Born in Fargo in 1948, Lincoln Huseby attended the University of North Dakota and graduated before becoming an insurance agent in 1971. After working with American Family Insurance for many years, Mr. Huseby formed a partnership to form his own agency, H & H Insurance, in 1994. H & H Insurance is an independent agency, offering a variety of insurance types, from a number of insurance companies, to customers around the central Red River Valley region.

    In this interview, Mr. Huseby discusses the impact of the winter of 1996-97 and the flood of 1997 on the insurance business. He describes the events of the flooding and the difficulties the flood raised for both insurance companies and insurance customers. Among the topics he addresses in his interview are the possible effects of the flood on insurance coverage in the Red River Valley, particularly federal flood insurance; the effect of the flood on businesses, especially business losses; and the possible impact of the flood and the flood's aftermath on future health coverage in the region. Mr. Huseby also discusses the impact of the flood on his own business.

    15. Jurgens, Paul.
    A native of Fergus Falls, Minnesota, Paul Jurgens joined the news staff of KFGO radio, Fargo, North Dakota, in 1983. In 1985, he was named director of the five-person news division. Since KFGO is the designated emergency broadcast station for the Red River Valley region, the station has frequently been recognized for its coverage of weather emergencies in the Valley, including a George Foster Peabody award for news coverage in 1984.

    In this interview, Mr. Jurgens discusses the flooding of the Red River Valley in 1997. He describes the coverage of the flooding at KFGO, the difficulties that the news personnel had in traveling to sites during the flooding, and the strain that the emergency placed on the radio staff to maintain full-time, live coverage of the events as they occurred. Although Jurgens feels that the flood emergency of 1997 was a "career high point," he also acknowledges that "the human tragedy and destruction [brought by the high waters] was difficult to experience." Partly due to the coverage of the flooding, KFGO-AM was named the News-Talk-Sports station of the year for 1997 by the National Association of Broadcasters. (An audio tape selection of KFGO broadcasts during the flood is described in Series IV.)

    16. Knighton, Karen.
    Born in North Carolina, Karen Knighton married Dan Knighton, who in 1970 came to Moorhead State University as a professor of economics. In 1991, the Knightons, after living at previous homes near Wolverton, Minnesota and in south Moorhead, purchased a home on North Terrace in north Fargo. Since the home was located about 150 feet from the west bank of the Red River, it and other homes in the Oak Grove neighborhood were threatened by the severe flooding that occurred in the spring of 1997.

    In this interview, Mrs. Knighton relates the events of the flooding around her home and the subsequent flooding of the Oak Grove neighborhood in mid-April. She also discusses aspects of the flood fighting efforts that were mounted by the faculty, staff, and students of Moorhead State University in the Oak Grove area, as well as other parts of Fargo-Moorhead. Mrs. Knighton explains the circumstances behind her and her husband's decision to give up their North Terrace home after the flood.

    17. Laken, Neoma.
    Born in Wahpeton, North Dakota, Neoma Laken is a lifelong resident of Wilkin County, Minnesota. She served as Wilkin County recorder from 1976 until her retirement in 1994, and has collected and written county history for many years. In this interview, Miss Laken describes her activities in Breckenridge during the spring 1997 flood. Since the flood, she has been appointed to the Breckenridge City Council, where she currently is involved in a number of flood recovery efforts.

    18. Manske, Joel.
    Joel Manske was born and raised in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Following his graduation from the University of North Dakota in 1985, he took a position with the Office of Urban Development in the city of Grand Forks. In 1990, he became the director of the Grand Forks Housing Authority.

    In this interview, Mr. Manske discusses the impact of the 1997 flood on his work and his personal life. He describes how his home on Walnut Street, which he had just concluded an arrangement to sell, was flooded after the dikes gave way. He explains how for the next several weeks, he, his family, and many friends from the city lived on the new property he had purchased southwest of Grand Forks. He discusses how the flood hurt his income after the sale of his old house was cancelled after the flood.

    As director of the Housing Authority, Mr. Manske was much involved in flood recovery efforts, including the distribution of assistance checks to residents from the "angel fund." He describes the plans of the city to build new housing on the west side of the city, and how the financing was planned so that residents, who had lost their homes in the flood, could buy new, more expensive homes with a combination of FEMA payments, no-interest, and low-interest loans. He also explains in detail some of the work required to recondition and rebuild low-cost city housing after the flood. He concludes his interview with some speculations on the flood's impact on future city development.

    19. Martin, Robert.
    A native of Omaha, Nebraska, Bob Martin earned a degree in civil engineering at Iowa State University. After working as a city engineer in Oklahoma, Mr. Martin became Public Works director for the city of Moorhead in 1986. In this capacity, he supervises the engineering, electrical and water services, sanitation, and waste water operations of the city.

    In this interview, Mr. Martin describes the impact of the 1997 flood on the city's operations. Beginning with background on how the city planned for high water, he explains how the Public Works personnel dealt with the threat of the flood to water and power services in the city. He describes some of the emergencies that arose during the flood. He also discusses the strain that the flood's course had on city employees. He concludes the interview by giving an overview on the city's flood mitigation projects that were developed to repair flood damage and provide greater protection to property and city services in any future flooding.

    20. Mikkelson, Steve.
    Steve Mikkelson was born in Edina, Minnesota, in 1967. After graduating from St. Cloud State University in 1990, he spent five years working in the public relations office for the International Coalition for Land and Water Stewardship in the Red River Basin. In 1996, he accepted a position as Public Information Officer for the northwest regional office of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency.

    In this interview, Mr. Mikkelson discusses the pollution aspects of the flood. He describes the activities of the MPCA during the flood in trying to track the reports of pollutants in the flood waters. He also describes the subsequent negotiations between Canada and the United States on the costs of pollution damage from the flood. He also explains how the MPCA reacted to the needs of East Grand Forks after the flood inundated its major landfill site. He concludes the interview with some speculations on the MPCA's role in future flood-related and water management issues in the Valley.

    21. Montplaisir, Annette.
    Born in Moorhead in 1960, Annette Montplaisir and her family now live in an unincorporated neighborhood north of the city. Since this neighborhood is very close to a large bend in the Red River, her home was in great danger throughout the flood. In addition, as a communications officer for both the Moorhead Police Department and the Clay County Sheriff's Office, Ms. Montplaisir became well acquainted with the difficulties of many area residents during the flood.

    In this interview Ms. Montplaisir describes the course of the flood from her perspectives as a communications officer and a homeowner. She explains her duties in relaying requests for evacuations and other emergency needs to residents during the flood. She also explains how during this time her own home was surrounded by water, forcing her and her children to live in Moorhead, while her husband remained to protect the house. She discusses the damage to her home from the flood, the loss of neighbors' homes, and the efforts she and her family have made to repair their home since the flood. This interview provides a good example of how hundreds of individuals had to balance professional responsibilities with personal concerns during the emergencies in April 1997.

    22. Pearson, Wendy.
    Wendy Pearson was born in Iowa in 1970. After attending Iowa State University, where she studied meteorology, Wendy worked part-time for the United States Weather Service in Des Moines, then transferred to the Weather Service’s Springfield office. In 1996, she did an internship at the River Forecast Center in Chanhassen, Minnesota, specializing in hydrology, then began work at the Grand Forks, North Dakota, Weather Service office as the staff hydrologist in June 1996.

    In this interview, Wendy Pearson describes in detail the techniques that she used to estimate the flood crests for the 1997 Red River Valley floods. She explains the manner by which both the River Forecast Center and the Grand Forks office issued flood forecasts, and the problems that developed -- in estimation and in communications -- with the flood forecasts. She describes how, in the aftermath of the flooding of Grand Forks and East Grand Forks, Minnesota, a controversy developed over the Weather Service’s role in flood predictions. She also discusses how both the flooding and the flood-prediction controversy affected her and others at the Grand Forks office. She describes changes the Weather Service has implemented in prediction forecasts as a result of the flood.

    23. Pederson, Ron and John Stumpf.
    Ron Pederson has worked at Northern States Power Company for some 35 years, and at the time of the 1997 Red River Valley flood, he was the manager of natural gas operations in North Dakota for NSP. His associate, John Stumpf, began working at NSP in 1980 as a lineman. At the time of the flood, Mr. Stumpf was superintendent of power lines for the company.

    In this interview, Mr. Pederson and Mr. Stumpf discuss their activities in restoring electrical power and natural gas service to flooded communities. Mr. Stumpf discusses the difficulties involved in restoring electrical lines that had been brought down by a severe blizzard in early April 1997, knocking out power for large number of communities and rural customers in the Valley. The largest part of the interview is devoted to the problems of restoring services after the flood to Grand Forks, North Dakota. Mr. Pederson discusses the problems with restoring natural gas service to homes in the community, and in replacing natural gas lines that were flooded or otherwise damaged. Mr. Stumpf describes the many steps involved in restoring electrical service. Both men also describe in detail the steps taken by NSP to protect power and gas facilities during the flood and steps taken to provide greater protection in any future flooding. They describe how employees of NSP were housed and fed in Grand Forks while the flood waters were receding and in the weeks following. They conclude the interview by discussing how the flood and the recovery efforts affected employees of Northern States Power. (See also the NSP video described in Series IV.)

    24. Reimer, Herb.
    As city engineer and assistant public works director for the city of Moorhead, Minnesota, Herb Reimer was intimately involved in the flood struggle of April 1997. In this interview, Mr. Reimer discusses the flood of April 1997, and the challenges that the Moorhead city government faced in protecting and maintaining power and water services while the flood waters were at their highest. He describes the early April storm that threatened to inundate the eastern neighborhoods and the steps he took to protect local power and water junctions. He also discusses how he devised a means to prevent the city waste water sewers from being flooded and steps taken to protect the power and water plants in the city. He concludes the interview by describing the mitigation projects being developed, under which dikes would be reinforced and extended, and city services would be better protected against possible future floods.

    25. Schuster, William.
    William Schuster began working as a forestry technician for the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources about 1980. In that capacity, he became proficient in working with helicopter crews to direct the fighting of wild fires and forest fires in Minnesota. As a result of this experience, he is associated with the national Incident Command System devised for dealing with fires and other emergencies. It was through his association with the ICS that he became involved in the emergencies from the flooding of the Red River in 1997.

    In this transcript, Mr. Schuster discusses his activities during the flooding, both in Ada, Minnesota, and in Grand Forks, North Dakota. In regards to Ada, Mr. Schuster describes his early activities, using a light aircraft to study the spread of overland flooding in Norman County. The information was used by communities in the county for taking precautions. He also describes how sites were selected for the possible evacuation of rural homes during the flood, and the part he played in helping to designate Norman County a restricted air zone in order to reduce air traffic during the flood.

    In mid-April, Mr. Schuster went to Grand Forks in order to help direct efforts to fight the fire that had broken out in the downtown area of that flooded city. He describes in detail his role in this fire fight, including the provision of a large helicopter for use in dropping water and fire retardants on the fire and nearby buildings. Mr. Schuster concludes his interview with some observations on how emergencies require coordinated efforts.

    This interview transcript was made from a tape Mr. Schuster dictated in reply to questions sent him by the staff of the Northwest Minnesota Historical Center. Since this self-interview, he has continued his work at the Department of Natural Resources. He has also been named to one of the 15 "type one" emergency response air teams available in the United States.

    26. Schwandt, William.
    Born in Minot, North Dakota, Bill Schwandt went to work for the city of Moorhead in 1985. In 1993, he became the director of Moorhead Public Services. In this interview, Mr. Schwandt describes his activities during the April 1997 flood. He explains the pre-flood planning by the Public Service Commission and his office for protecting power and water services. He discusses the emergencies that arose during the flooding and steps taken to prevent the water and power services from being threatened during the flood. He also describes what the Public Service Commission did after the flood to assist city employees and other people who had damage to their homes from the flood. He concludes his interview with a discussion of Moorhead's flood mitigation plan for preventing major problems in possible future floods.

    27. Stennes, Greg.
    Greg Stennes was born in Rosa, Minnesota, in 1947. He grew up in East Grand Forks, Minnesota, and took a job at Whitey’s Café while attending the University of North Dakota. Established in the early 1930s by Edwin "Whitey" Larson, Whitey’s Café and Lounge had become a landmark in the East Grand Forks community. When Larson retired in 1973, Stennes became the manager of Whitey’s and ultimately became one of three persons to own the establishment.

    In this interview, Greg Stennes discusses the flood of 1997 and its impact on Whitey’s Café, which was located just beyond the East Grand Forks downtown dikes. He describes the steps he took to try and protect the building, and relates the events that occurred after the town was flooded in mid-April. He explains the extensive damage that the flood had on Whitey’s, and why the town’s decision to extend its dike system made it necessary to tear down the original site of his restaurant. Mr. Stennes also discusses the flood damage to his East Grand Forks house and the steps he took to move his home east of the town and well away from the Red River.

    Those who read this interview should note that at the end of the interview, Mr. Stennes indicated that, at the time he spoke, he planned to reopen Whitey’s in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Since this interview, however, he has changed his mind. After further negotiations with the East Grand Forks city government, he and his business partners decided to remain in Minnesota. Whitey’s reopened at a new location in East Grand Forks in late September, 1998.

    28. Thomas, Audrey.
    Born in Grafton, North Dakota, Audrey Thomas has lived in Ada, Minnesota, since 1977. She has been the director of the Ada Public Library since 1987. In this interview, Mrs. Thomas describes the flooding of Ada in the spring of 1997. She discusses the damage wreaked by the flood on her own home and the destruction of the Ada Public Library. She also describes the efforts to rebuild the library and other recovery activities in Ada during the summer of 1997. The rebuilt Ada Public Library was opened in October 1997, although it took several more months before the library collection was completely replaced.

    29. Thronson, Myron and Kevin Ruud.
    As officials of Norman County, Minnesota, Myron Thronson and Kevin Ruud were much involved in the efforts to combat flooding in and around the city of Ada in April 1997. Myron Thronson, a native of Norman County, has been with the county sheriff's department since 1988, and has been the county sheriff since his election in 1994. Kevin Ruud, who has been living in Norman County since 1959, was hired by the county in 1992 as the county environmental services officer; in this capacity, he was the emergency management director during the flood crisis.

    In this interview, Sheriff Thronson and Mr. Ruud discuss the flooding in Norman County, with particular emphasis on the events in Ada. They discuss the onset of flooding in and around Ada, the difficulties encountered in evacuating most of the residents from the city, and the subsequent problems they dealt with before the flood receded. One incident they describe concerns the decision to restrict air space over Norman County in order to deal with the increase in helicopters and aircraft that appeared in the area's skies during the flood. They also describe the steps involved in coordinating the flood fighting efforts with various state and federal agencies. They also discuss in detail some of the difficulties that Ada residents -- and others living in Norman County -- have experienced during the lengthy recovery period after the flood receded.

    30. Tobias, Nanci.
    Born in Chicago, Nanci Tobias met her future husband Randy while both were attending the University of Wisconsin-Stout. After they married, Nanci and Randy moved to Breckenridge, Minnesota, in 1974. Randy, a contractor, built their home in the southern part of Breckenridge in 1977. In 1985, Nanci began working at the Breckenridge Public Library.

    In this interview, Nanci Tobias describes the course of flooding in Breckenridge in April 1997. She describes the damage that the flooding did to the public library, and discusses in detail the several days during which her home was surrounded by flood waters that engulfed much of south Breckenridge. She also discusses the effect of the flooding on her family, the repairs that needed to be made on both the library and her home, and the possible long-term problems that Breckenridge will face as a result of the 1997 flood.

    31. Tobias, Randy.
    Born in Wahpeton, North Dakota, in 1948, Randy Tobias grew up in the Wahpeton-Breckenridge area, then attended the University of Wisconsin-Stout, where he met and married his wife, Nanci. In 1974, the Tobiases moved to Breckenridge, and Randy went to work in his father’s Wahpeton-based construction business, which he subsequently took over. In 1977, Randy built a home for his family, which is located in the southern part of Breckenridge.

    In this interview, Randy describes the impact of the harsh winter of 1996-97 on his contracting business. He goes on to describe the preparations made by government and businesses in Breckenridge for the anticipated spring flooding. As a volunteer flood fighter, Randy was much involved in sand-bagging and other efforts. He discusses the severe damage that the flood did to the school buildings in town and the damage sustained by many of his friends and neighbors to their homes and businesses. In mid-April, the Tobias home was threatened when the rising waters essentially surrounded the street on which Randy’s family lived. He discusses the drawn-out efforts to protect their home from the flood. Finally, Randy describes the difficulties that people in Breckenridge have been having in rebuilding after the flood.

    32. Visser, Ken and Wanda.
    Ken Visser was born in Crookston, Minnesota, in 1947. Growing up on a farm near Ada, he began farming on his own in the 1970s, growing small grains and raising pigs and cattle. His wife Wanda, a native of Fertile, Minnesota, worked at the Bridges Medical Facility in Ada until the time of the 1997 flood.

    In this interview, the Vissers describe their experiences in the 1997 flooding. They describe how their farm was surrounded by flood waters for nearly two weeks in April, the losses to their farm property and livestock as a result of the flooding, and how the flood has affected the future of their farming operation. Wanda Visser also discusses the damage that the flooding did to the Bridges Medical Facility in Ada and how this has affected her occupation as a licensed practical nurse.

    33. Weber, Susan and Laurie Holtman.
    Both Sue Weber and Laurie Holtman are long time residents and day care providers in East Grand Forks, Minnesota. In this interview, the two women describe their experiences during the flooding of the Red River in 1997. They discuss the impact of the flood on their clients, as well as how it affected the children they took care of during the emergencies. They also describe the damage that the flooding had on their own homes and the efforts they have made since the flood to repair those damages while reestablishing their day care businesses.

    In the aftermath of the flood, Sue Weber worked with the East Grand Forks Head Start Program to provide temporary child care during the summer of 1997. She also discusses this aspect of flood recovery. Both women conclude their interview with some observations on the future of city development and population growth in East Grand Forks after the flood.

    1. Come Hell and High Water.
    Published in 1997 by the Grand Forks Herald and Knight-Ridder Newspapers, focusing on the flood in Grand Forks, North Dakota, and East Grand Forks, Minnesota.

    2. Community in Crisis: A Community Action Agency's Response to the 1997 Red River Valley Floods.
    Published by the Minnesota Department of Children, Families, & Learning, December 1997.

    3. Concordia [alumni publication of Concordia College, Moorhead, Minnesota].
    This Autumn 1997 issue of the alumni magazine contains accounts of Concordia's difficulties during the flood.

    4. Fighting Back: The Blizzards and Floods in the Red River Valley, 1996-97.
    Published by The Forum, 1997, on flooding across the region.

    5. A Flood of Memories: Lincoln Elementary School.
    Published by Lincoln Elementary School in Grand Forks, North Dakota, this volume contains poems and stories about the flood by students at the school.

    6. Flooding in the Grand Forks-East Grand Forks Area.
    Samuel Harrison and John Bluemle, North Dakota Geological Survey. Published by Richtman's Incorporated, Fargo, North Dakota in 1980, concerning previous floods.

    7. The Floods of 1997: A Special Report.
    Published by the North Dakota State Water Commission, June 1997, with information on water management issues.

    8. Minnesota National Guard Flood Fight '97 Operational Review.
    Report of the Minnesota National Guard flood operation, 1997.

    9. Minnkota Messenger: Special Disaster Issue.
    Published by Minnkota Power Cooperative, Grand Forks, North Dakota, Summer 1997, concerning power restoration after the flood.

    10. 1996 North American Emergency Response Guidebook.
    Published by United States Department of Transportation, 1996, this volume was used in various emergencies in Norman County during the flood.

    11. North Dakota Water: Flood Disaster of 1997.
    Published by the North Dakota Water Education Foundation in June 1997, as a commemorative issue on the flood, and on water management issues.

    12. Phase 1: Survey of Property Owners in Lincoln Drive, Riverside Park and Central Park Acquisition Areas.
    Prepared by the Social Science Research Institute, University of North Dakota in 1998, as a preliminary study for home buy-outs and new home development in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

    13. One Year Has Passed.
    Published by The Village Family Service Center, March-April 1998, on flood recovery issues and the flood's impact on families.

    14. Red River Flooding: Short-Term Measures.
    Published in December 1997, this interim report by the International Red River Basin Task Force details flood damage in the Valley and suggests future changes in water management.

    15. Red River of the North 1997 Floods: Service Assessment and Hydraulic Analysis.
    Published by United States Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, August 1998.

    16. The Red River Valley Flood: "A Time of Need, Togetherness and Tears".
    Published in Breckenridge, Minnesota, in 1997, on flooding in that town.

    17. A Small Town's War: East Grand Forks 1997 Flood Fight.
    Published by the city of East Grand Forks in 1999.

    18. Soil Survey: The Red River Valley Area Minnesota.
    Published by United States Department of Agriculture, April 1939, and contains information on previous floods in the Valley.

    19. Tri-Valley Opportunity Council Annual Report, 1997.
    Published in April 1998, containing much information on flood recovery in Polk, Marshall, and Norman counties in Minnesota.

    1. Beyond the Flood: The Flood of '97: The People, Their Stories.
    This two hour videotape contains stories broadcast during the flood by five Twin City television stations: KARE, KMSP, KSTP, KTCA, and WCCO. The tape was produced and sold with proceeds being donated to flood victims.

    2. Grand Forks -- Public Television Call-In Show on "The Next Flood".
    Broadcast live on September 17, 1997, this public television show featured a panel of experts fielding calls concerning what plans were being considered for future flood protection. The "dike vs. diversion" issue as well as other recovery issues are discussed in the 58 minute broadcast.

    3. Come Hell and High Water: Sights and Sounds of the 1997 Red River Flood.
    This 20 minute videotape features footage of both the flooding of East Grand Forks, Minnesota and Grand Forks, North Dakota, and the fire that swept through the downtown of Grand Forks the next day. As with the "Beyond the Flood" video, this video was produced and sold with proceeds going to flood victims.

    4. KFGO Radio -- Flood of the Century Broadcasts.
    This audio tape contains about one hour of broadcasts from KFGO radio during the flood. As the Valley's main emergency broadcast station, KFGO carried news live and handled many calls from residents who gave information on advancing overland flooding, power difficulties, and other emergencies. The tape was made and submitted as part of KFGO's being honored by the National Association of Broadcasters in 1997.

    5. KVLY Television -- From Ruin to Recovery.
    A two hour videotape with selections from this Fargo, North Dakota, television station's broadcasts during the flood.

    6. KXJB Television -- A Season 4 Survivors.
    A one hour videotape with selections from this Fargo, North Dakota, television station's broadcasts during the flood.

    7. The Norman County Flood of 1997.
    Produced by KAWB and KAWE TV stations of Bemidji, Minnesota, this 30 minute tape uses local video footage to highlight flooding in Norman County, Minnesota.

    8. Northern States Power -- When Nature's Worst Met NSP's Best.
    An 18 minute video produced by NSP's public relations office featuring footage on the restoration of electrical power after the early April ice storm and flooding.

    9. University of North Dakota Foundation -- UND Flood Recovery '97: Facing the Challenge: UND.
    A short video pertaining to the flood recovery at the University of North Dakota located in Grand Forks.

    10. WDAY Television -- Floodwatch '97.
    A one hour videotape with selections from this Fargo, North Dakota, television station's broadcasts during the flood.

    11. WDAZ Television -- Force of Nature?
    A 90 minute video with selections from this Grand Forks, North Dakota, television station's broadcasts during and after the flood.

    These clippings, taken from newspapers in the region, are filed under the following file headings:

    1997 Flood 2
    Homes being demolished in the area of Plum and Petrolia Streets, Grand Forks, North Dakota, August 1998. Scores of homes in Grand Forks were lost to the flood.

    • Ada, Minnesota
    • Agriculture, Impact of Flood on
    • Army Corps of Engineers and Flood Recovery
    • Breckenridge, Minnesota
    • Canada, Impact of Flood on
    • Churches and Flood Recovery
    • East Grand Forks, Minnesota
    • Families, Impact of Flood on
    • Fargo, North Dakota
    • Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and Flood Recovery
    • Governments (federal and state) and Flood Recovery
    • Grand Forks, North Dakota
    • Minnesota Communities (various)
    • Moorhead, Minnesota
    • North Dakota Communities (various)
    • Red River Valley (stories on general flooding and flood recovery in region)
    • Relief Organizations and Flood Recovery
    • Water Management Issues and Flood Recovery
    • Winter Storms of 1997 and Impact on Flooding